Learning Outcomes for Basic, Social and Clinical Sciences and Underlying Principles
Level 1 - How the doctor approaches their practice
Level 2 - Outcomes for Basic, Social and Clinical Sciences and Underlying Principles
The competent graduate recognises, explains and manages health problems using the principles of current scientific knowledge and understanding that underpin medicine.
This could include: Level 4
Normal structure and function of the individual as an intact organism and of each of its major organ systems
Anatomy, physiology, psychology/psychiatry, biochemistry, genetics.
Molecular, biochemical, cellular and immunological mechanisms that are important in maintaining homeostasis
The life cycle
The different stages and how these affect normal structure and function e.g. the foetus; the neonate / infant; childhood; adolescence; adulthood; old age; death.
Behaviour and relationships between an individual and his/her:
Family / partners
Immediate social groups
Society at large and the general population
Responses to illness
Behavioural sciences, psychology and sociology
Beliefs and understanding of health and illness
Study of cultural and ethnic influences on health care
The role of complementary medicine
The mechanisms of diseases and the ways in which these diseases affect the body (pathogenesis)
Knowledge and understanding of the following causes of disease: genetic, developmental, metabolic, toxic, microbiological, autoimmune, neoplastic, degenerative, traumatic, environmental, social, occupational.
The alteration in structure and function of the body and its major organ systems resulting from various diseases and conditions
Appropriate pathology and pathophysiology.
Pharmacological principles of treatment using drugs
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
Mechanisms of action / interaction.
Side effects / adverse reactions.
Principles of therapeutic measures in the management and symptomatic relief of diseases
Drugs, surgery, radiotherapy, complementary therapies.
Evidence base for use of therapeutic measures.
Knowledge and understanding of scientific reasoning in the practice of public health in the NHS.
Principles of healthcare planning, prioritisation of service and communicable disease control.
Knowledge and understanding of basic concepts including the cost of patient management to NHS, other care systems and society and rationing.
Knowledge and understanding of causes of disease and evidence of causes.
Disease aetiology and relationships between risk factors and disease – high risk approach and population approach
Knowledge and understanding of principles of demography, biological variability and clinical trials.
Knowing about and applying basic theories of learning and teaching.
Basic organisation of medical teaching and training in the UK.
The assessment should seek to validate the core knowledge and principles of basic, social and clinical science, which are essential for medical practice as a PRHO and as a subsequent foundation for future professional development.
The assessment of this outcome should ensure that graduates are able to achieve integration of basic, social and clinical science in a clinical context and the process of medical care. It is highly desirable for the chosen assessments(s) to be capable of detailed item analysis and subsequent measures of reliability.
It is essential that any assessments(s) for this outcome are able reliably to separate competent from non-competent students. Given the core nature of the material under this outcome a high level of achievement should be required.
The assessment of this outcome should include both formative and summative methods, and continuous and discrete items of assessment. Local applicability will determine which types are most appropriate at different points of the curriculum.
Assessment instruments such as a Progress Test have been shown to be able to fulfill this role in a number of curriculum styles.
Assessment Instruments considered appropriate to assess or contribute to the assessment of this outcome include objective types, such as MCQ and EMI; and free response types, such as MEQ, CRQ, very short answer questions, essays, work books, progress testing and portfolios.
Sharing of assessment resources, such as a central bank of objective test items, stored with information on their item analysis/reliability, would be of benefit to the Scottish medical schools.
Recommended reliable and valid methods of assessment for this outcome include:
Potential new methods of assessment include:
Central bank of objective test items
Assessing medical evidence workbook